Scientists Use Squid Ink to Draw its Jurassic Period Owner

Scientists Use Squid Ink to Draw its Jurassic Period Owner

first_img(PhysOrg.com) — Scientists digging in Trowbridge, Wiltshire in England have uncovered the fossilized remains of a prehistoric squid-like creature that lived in the Jurassic period around 150 million years ago. Among their finds was a rock, which they broke open to reveal the intact one-inch long fossilized ink sac. Citation: Scientists Use Squid Ink to Draw its Jurassic Period Owner (2009, August 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-08-scientists-squid-ink-jurassic-period.html An X-ray Time Machine? The ink sac was found to be similar to modern-day squid ink, and as an experiment, the researchers extracted a sample of the black ink and dissolved the ground specimen in an ammonia solution. To their amazement they were able to use the black, inky solution to write with and even to draw a picture of the animal. The leader of the paleontological dig, Dr Phil Wilby said it is usually only hard parts such as bone and shell that become fossilized, and soft tissue fossils have only been found in a few dozen sites around the world. Dr Wilby explained that sometimes soft-bodied creatures could be turned to stone within a matter of days after death in an effect paleontologists call the Medusa effect, or instantaneous fossilization. The result is a fossil that can be dissected to show even cells and cell nuclei in 3D images when viewed with powerful microscopes. One of the sites where soft tissue fossils had been discovered in the past was in Trowbridge, where thousands of fossils of Jurassic period fossils were found in the 1840s during the construction of the Great Western Railway. Two years ago, Wilby and his team decided to try and find the almost forgotten site. After locating the site through a series of trial drills, they received funding from the Curry Fund and the British Geological Survey, and were able to carry out a ten-day dig to look for fossils.During their excavations the team exposed several thousand fossils of the squid-like creature, Belemnotheutis Antiques, in the 265 tons of rock they examined. Dr Wilby explained that it seems likely the area was a breeding site and the thousands of congregated animals were poisoned by algal blooms. In total the team found a couple of dozen specimens with soft parts such as eyes and muscles perfectly preserved. But the ink sac was the most exciting find.Part of the fossilized ink sac has been sent to a Yale University laboratory in the US for detailed chemical analysis. The rest of the specimen is now in Nottingham in the British Geological Survey collection.More information: Geology Today, Volume 24 Issue 3, Pages 95 – 98. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2451.2008.00666.x© 2009 PhysOrg.com Drawing: British Geological Survey (BGS), (c)NERC This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore furtherlast_img read more

Freddie HUD Offer a Hand to Irene Victims

Freddie HUD Offer a Hand to Irene Victims

first_img Agents & Brokers Attorneys & Title Companies FHA Freddie Mac Housing Affordability HUD Lenders & Servicers Processing Refinance Service Providers 2011-09-08 Ryan Schuette in Government, Origination, Secondary Market, Servicing Freddie, HUD Offer a Hand to Irene Victims September 8, 2011 442 Views center_img Share “”Freddie Mac””:http://www.freddiemac.com/ and “”HUD””:http://portal.hud.gov/portal/page/portal/HUD recently stepped up home relief programs for eligible borrowers who saw their property and prized possessions wash away with the tidewaters of Hurricane Irene. The availability of federal relief will allow qualifying homeowners in distress to gain reprieve from late fees and penalties likely to result from delayed mortgage payments, avoid foreclosure and eviction from their homes, and take advantage of HUD insurance policies to revamp their residences.[IMAGE]In a release dated Thursday, Freddie Mac announced that it had green-lighted relief options for companies servicing their mortgages. The decision follows a release made public Tuesday by HUD, which signed off on a federal disaster assistance package that frees up state grants for areas with considerable damage.””Freddie Mac has authorized the nation’s mortgage servicers to provide a full range of mortgage relief options to affected borrowers with mortgages owned or guaranteed by Freddie Mac,”” Anthony Renzi, the GSE’s EVP of single-family business, operations, and technology, said in a “”statement””:http://freddiemac.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=12329&item=59469. “”Forbearance on mortgage payments for up to one year are among the options our servicers have been instructed to offer borrowers on a case-by-case basis.””[COLUMN_BREAK]The action by Freddie will help improve their lot by allowing homeowners to waive penalties in late mortgage payments for damaged homes, delay any existing processes for foreclosures and evictions, and scratch off the need to report delinquencies or forbearance issues.With Freddie Mac servicing a significant share of loans that make up the $11-trillion mortgage market, the assistance is likely to reach a considerable number of homeowners across New England.There are eligibility requirements: mortgage borrowers with loans backed by the GSE will receive assistance if their homes lie inside zones declared by the administration as Major Disaster Areas, and only then in areas in which President Barack Obama has unchained individual assistance programs for homeowners and households.The helpful hand from Freddie follows a similar move by HUD, whose chief, Secretary Shaun Donovan, heralded disaster relief for counties across Virginia.””Families who may have been forced from their homes need to know that help is available to begin the rebuilding process,”” Donovan said in a “”statement””:http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/press/press_releases_media_advisories/2011/HUDNo.11-202. “”Whether it’s foreclosure relief for FHA-insured families or helping these counties to recover, HUD stands ready to help in any way we can.””Among the array of options available to Americans in entitlement communities, HUD removed restrictions for Community Development Block Grants and HOME programs, said yes to a 90-day ban on foreclosures and forbearance on foreclosures for homeowners with loans backed by the “”Federal Housing Administration””:http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program_offices/housing/fhahistory, and approved agency insurance policies, available under Section 203(h) programs, for disaster victims suffering from home loss or other extensive damage.Thanks to HUD, homeowners with FHA loans in these disaster areas will be able to refinance their homes without taking out a new mortgage.last_img read more